Skating is a precise sports. The main idea is the movement of an skater or a couple of skaters on ice with changes in the direction of sliding and performance additional elements (spins, jumps, combinations of foot strokes, supports, etc.) to the music.
Sports Disciplines included into the Winter Universiade 2019
Pairs consist of a short program and a free skating. Along with the execution of modern elements such as a lift, a pivot, a throw jump, a twist lift, a death spiral and pair spin an athlete is required to perform single skating elements: support steps, multi-rotation jumps, spins and jumps. However, these elements must be performed by partners which create an impression of the unity of their actions.
One woman and one man
Single skating consists of a short program and a free skating. When performing a free skating program an athlete must perform all groups of elements like steps, spirals, spins and jumps. Another crucial criterion is the connection of the athlete’s movements with the music as well as his flexibility, aesthetic and artistic impression.
Synchronized skating is a figure skating discipline that is not included in the Winter Olympics program. It is based on the demonstration of the accuracy and coordination of movement of all members of the group. The synchronized skating team consists of 16 - 20 skaters and includes both women and men. Synchronized skating consists of a short program and a free skating. The scoring system is the same as in figure skating.
The basis of the Ice Dance is a combination of steps performed in accordance with the rhythm; it is a combined performance of dance steps in standard and non-standard dance positions. Ice Dance discipline includes short dance and free dance. The rhythm and content of the dance is determined for the current season.
One woman and one man
The skates were first brought into Russia from Europe by Peter I. The Emperor invented a new method of fastening skates — he fastened them right to the high boots.
In 1772 the English Lieutenant of artillery Robert Jones published "Treatise on skating" in which he described all the figure skating figures that existed back then. It was the first set of rules of a new sport.
The Russian word for “skates” (kon’ki) got its name because the front part of the prototype of modern blades was usually decorated with a small figure of horse (Russian - kon’) head.
Short ladies’ skirt first appeared in the 19th century. English Princess Mary introduced a new clothing for skating: a long dress was tucked by half.
The spins were originally called "knots" because of the pattern left on the ice. The expression "to tie the knots" meant "to spin".
Figure skating is one of the first sports disciplines that was included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. The first Olympic competitions were held in 1908.
In the past, when there were no color TVs, the competition commentator also described the clothing of the skaters.
In addition to Individual, Pairs, Synchronized Skating and Ice Dance there is another type of the discipline - four skating. The four skating discipline is performed by Pair skating athletes in the number of four people. Such performances first took place in 1914 in Canada and were held on a regular basis until 1964, and then resumed in 1981. Nowadays, the leaders in this discipline of figure skating are Canadian and American teams.
The famous skater from Russia Alexei Yagudin is a four-time World champion, three-time European champion as well as the Olympic champion. But he never won the Russian national figure skating championship.
Ice skates were invented many centuries ago. There is a historical evidence that the first skates were made of animal bones.
Iron skates were first mentioned in the Icelandic “Frithiof's Saga” written in 1380.
The emergence of a new type of skates gave a powerful impetus to the development of high-speed skating and figure skating, which at that time included mainly the ability to draw complex figures on the ice and maintain a beautiful pose.
In the middle of the 19th century figure skating became one of the sports and gained popularity in a number of European countries, as well as in North American countries like United States and Canada.
It took about a hundred years to develop almost all current required elements and basic techniques.
After the International Skating Union (ISU) was established in 1892, the scope of its activities included figure skating along with speed skating. The competition regulations were created.
The ISU started to organize annual World figure skating championships. The first World Championship was organized in 1896 in St. Petersburg, the capital of Russia, and the championship program included only men single skating competitions.
In 1906 female single skaters compete at the World Championship for the first time in the Swiss city of Davos.
The first Pairs World championships were held in 1908 in St. Petersburg.
In 1948 the International Skating Union recognized Ice Dance as a sport one of the varieties of Figure Skating - and formed a special Committee within the ISU.
The synchronized skating was created at the same time as Figure Skating but was not that popular. The Synchronized Skating World cup has been held since 1983, the World championship - since 2000.